Literature Library

Currently indexing 2927 titles

Marine recreational fishing and the implications of climate change

Townhill BL, Radford Z, Pecl G, Putten I, Pinnegar JK, Hyder K. Marine recreational fishing and the implications of climate change. Fish and Fisheries [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/faf.12392
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Marine recreational fishing is popular globally and benefits coastal economies and people's well‐being. For some species, it represents a large component of fish landings. Climate change is anticipated to affect recreational fishing in many ways, creating opportunities and challenges. Rising temperatures or changes in storms and waves are expected to impact the availability of fish to recreational fishers, through changes in recruitment, growth and survival. Shifts in distribution are also expected, affecting the location that target species can be caught. Climate change also threatens the safety of fishing. Opportunities may be reduced owing to rougher conditions, and costs may be incurred if gear is lost or damaged in bad weather. However, not all effects are expected to be negative. Where weather conditions change favourably, participation rates could increase, and desirable species may become available in new areas. Drawing on examples from the UK and Australia, we synthesize existing knowledge to develop a conceptual model of climate‐driven factors that could impact marine recreational fisheries, in terms of operations, participation and motivation. We uncover the complex pathways of drivers that underpin the recreational sector. Climate changes may have global implications on the behaviour of recreational fishers and on catches and local economies.

The health of commercial fishers in England and Wales: Analysis of the 2011 census

Turner RA, Sainsbury NC, Wheeler BW. The health of commercial fishers in England and Wales: Analysis of the 2011 census. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2019 ;106:103548. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X18308510
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Studies of commercial fishing have shown that it is a hazardous occupation with high rates of injury and fatal accidents. Research has also identified a range of other health risks faced by fishers, yet the general health outcomes of fishers have not been compared to those of workers in other industries. This study aimed to assess self-reported health outcomes among workers in the fishing industry, and to compare this to those working in other industries. Drawing on 2011 census data for England and Wales we used generalised linear models to compare self-reported measures of 1) general health and 2) limiting long-term illness across industry categories, calculating odds ratios adjusted for age, geographic region and socio-economic profile of local authorities. Of the population working in 87 industry classes, those in category ‘03 Fishing and aquaculture’ had the fifth highest rate of poor general health (2.8% reported ‘bad’ or ‘very bad’ health) and the sixth highest rate of reporting limiting long-term illness (10.3% reported their activities to be limited ‘a lot’ or ‘a little’). Odds ratios adjusted for age, geographic region and socio-economic profile of local authorities showed that only two other industries demonstrated statistical evidence for higher odds of poor general health or limiting long-term illness than workers in fishing and aquaculture. This study demonstrates that fishing is among the industries with the poorest general health and limiting long-term illness outcomes in the UK, demonstrating the need for tailored occupational health services to support UK fishing communities.

Ocean and land control-grabbing: The political economy of landscape transformation in Northern Tanintharyi, Myanmar

Barbesgaard M. Ocean and land control-grabbing: The political economy of landscape transformation in Northern Tanintharyi, Myanmar. Journal of Rural Studies [Internet]. 2019 ;69:195 - 203. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0743016718308465?dgcid=author
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $41.95
Type: Journal Article

After a spout of optimism surrounding Myanmar's so-called democratic transition in the post-2010 period, civil-society organisations and academics are beginning to highlight rampant and violent resource grabs unfolding across the country. Delving into the Northern Tanintharyi landscape in the Southeast, this article aims to understand interrelated dynamics of coastal and agrarian transformation during the state-mediated capitalist transition of the past 30 years. Conceptually developing a landscape-approach that sees individual ‘grabs’ in a relational manner and as part of broader political-economic struggles, the article shows how the Myanmar military regime sought a conjoined ocean and land control-grab in pursuit of rent extraction from productive foreign capital in fisheries and off-shore gas sectors. Empirically, these dynamics are traced from the scale of regional geopolitical struggles down to two particular villages in Northern Tanintharyi – highlighting resulting processes of differentiation along lines of class and gender. This conceptual framework and explanation of drivers behind ocean and land control-grabbing, in turn, complicates prevalent policy solutions in Myanmar (and elsewhere) that reduce the question of resolving resource-grabs to the pursuit of an elusive ‘good governance’.

The blue economy: Identifying geographic concepts and sensitivities

Garland M, Axon S, Graziano M, Morrissey J, C. Heidkamp P. The blue economy: Identifying geographic concepts and sensitivities. Geography Compass [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/gec3.12445#.XR4UEwpfNdQ.twitter
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

There is currently no generally accepted definition for the “blue economy,” despite the term becoming common parlance over the past decade. The concept and practice have spawned a rich, and diverse, body of scholarly activity. Yet despite this emerging body of literature, there is ambiguity around what the blue economy is, what it encapsulates, and its practices. Thus far, the existing literature has failed to theorise key geographical concepts such as space, place, scale, and power relations, all of which have the potential to lead to uneven development processes and regional differentiation. Previous research has sought to clarify the ontological separation of land and sea or has conceptualised the blue economy as a complex governmental project that opens up new governable spaces and rationalises particular ways of managing marine and coastal regions. More recently, geographers have called for a critical—and practical—engagement with the blue economy. This paper critically examines the existing literature of the geographies of the blue economy through a structured meta‐analysis of published work, specifically its conceptualisations and applications to debates in the field. Results offer the potential to ground a bottom‐up definition of the blue economy. In so doing, this paper provides a clearly identifiable rubric of the key geographical concepts that are often overlooked by researchers, policymakers, and practitioners when promoting economic development and technological innovation in coastal and marine environments.

Money, use and experience: Identifying the mechanisms through which ecosystem services contribute to wellbeing in coastal Kenya and Mozambique

Chaigneau T, Brown K, Coulthard S, Daw TM, Szaboova L. Money, use and experience: Identifying the mechanisms through which ecosystem services contribute to wellbeing in coastal Kenya and Mozambique. Ecosystem Services [Internet]. 2019 ;38:100957. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212041618303723
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Despite extensive recent research elucidating the complex relationship between ecosystem services and human wellbeing, little work has sought to understand howecosystem services contribute to wellbeing and poverty alleviation. This paper adopts concepts from the “Theory of Human Need” and the “Capability Approach” to both identify the multitude of links occurring between ecosystem services and wellbeing domains, and to understand the mechanisms through which ecosystem services contribute to wellbeing. Focus Group Discussions (N = 40) were carried out at 8 sites in Mozambique and Kenya to elicit how, why, and to what extent benefits derived from ecosystem services contribute to different wellbeing domains. Our results highlight three types of mechanisms through which ecosystem services contribute to wellbeing, monetary, use and experience. The consideration of these mechanisms can inform the development of interventions that aim to protect or improve flows of benefits to people. Firstly, interventions that support multiple types of mechanisms will likely support multiple domains of wellbeing. Secondly, overemphasising certain types of mechanism over others could lead to negative social feedbacks, threatening the future flows of ecosystem services. Finally, the three mechanism types are interlinked and can act synergistically to enhance the capacities of individuals to convert ecosystem services to wellbeing.

Ocean warming and acidification pose synergistic limits to the thermal niche of an economically important echinoderm

Manríquez PH, González CP, Brokordt K, Pereira L, Torres R, Lattuca ME, Fernández DA, Peck MA, Cucco A, Antognarelli F, et al. Ocean warming and acidification pose synergistic limits to the thermal niche of an economically important echinoderm. Science of The Total Environment [Internet]. In Press . Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969719333893?dgcid=raven_sd_search_email
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $41.95
Type: Journal Article

It is critical to understand how abiotic factors may interact to constrain the distribution and productivity of marine flora and fauna in order to make robust projections of the impacts of climate change. We evaluated the effects of projected near-future ocean acidification (OA) and warming (OW) on the thermal tolerance of an important living marine resource, the sea urchin Loxechinus albus, a benthic shallow water coastal herbivore inhabiting part of the Pacific coast of South America. After exposing young juveniles for a medium-term period (1-month) to contrasting pCO2 (~500 and 1400 μatm) and temperature (~15 and 20 °C) levels, critical thermal maximum (CTmax) and minimum (CTmin) as well as thermal tolerance polygons were assessed based on self-righting success as an end point. Transcription of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), a chaperone protecting cellular proteins from environmental stress, was also measured. Exposure to elevated pCO2significantly reduced thermal tolerance by increasing CTmin at both rearing temperatures and decreasing CTmax at 20 °C. There was also a strong synergistic effect of OA × OW on HSP70 transcription levels which were 75-fold higher than in control conditions. If this species is unable to adapt to elevated pCO2 in the future, the reduction in thermal tolerance and HSP response suggests that near-future warming and OA will disrupt their performance and reduce their distribution with ecological and economic consequences. Given the wider latitudinal range (6 to 56°S) and environmental tolerance of L. albus compared to other members of this region's benthic invertebrate community, OW and OA may cause substantial changes to the coastal fauna along the Chilean coast.

Evaluation of the total maximum allocated load of dissolved inorganic nitrogen using a watershed–coastal ocean coupled model

Chen Y, Cheng W, Zhang H, Qiao J, Liu J, Shi Z, Gong W. Evaluation of the total maximum allocated load of dissolved inorganic nitrogen using a watershed–coastal ocean coupled model. Science of The Total Environment [Internet]. 2019 ;673:734 - 749. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969719315499
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $41.95
Type: Journal Article

Due to the recent rapid increase in human activity and economic development, many coastal areas have recently experienced a high degree of land-based pollution. Evaluating the total maximum allocated load (TMAL) of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) nutrients and the remaining capacity is of importance for improving water quality. A considerable amount of nutrients derived from the coastal watershed can be found in wet seasons, which is non-negligible for the estimation of remaining capacity. Therefore, we use a watershed–coastal ocean coupled model combined with an optimization algorithm to tackle this issue. In contrast with previous studies, this study provides a method to estimate the spatiotemporal variations in TMALs and we then compare it to the current DIN nutrient load, including both point sources and non-point sources. Our results suggest that the TMAL of Daya Bay (DB), which is located in the northern part of the South China Sea, is about 7976 metric tons per year (t/yr) and ranges from 191 metric tons per month (t/month) to 1072 t/month. The increase of non-point source (NPS) DIN input also plays an important role in daily overload events during wet seasons. Moreover, the TMALs show an inverse exponential correlation with the water age, but only about 65% of the variance is explained. This suggests that the variations from the optimization algorithm and from local water function zoning plans are also important. According to our prediction of the DIN input, the TMAL of DB will soon be exhausted in the next several years. Consequently, prompt actions are necessary to consider the distribution of TMALs in urban developments and to decelerate the rapid growth of DIN input. Therefore, the results of this study will be helpful for both local pollution control and future urban planning.

Setting ecological expectations for adaptive management of marine protected areas

Nickols KJ, J. White W, Malone D, Carr MH, Starr RM, Baskett ML, Hastings A, Botsford LW. Setting ecological expectations for adaptive management of marine protected areas. Journal of Applied Ecology [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://besjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/1365-2664.13463
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article
  1. Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are being implemented worldwide, yet there are few cases where managers make specific predictions of the response of previously harvested populations to MPA implementation.
  2. Such predictions are needed to evaluate whether MPAs are working as expected, and if not, why. This evaluation is necessary to perform adaptive management, identifying whether and when adjustments to management might be necessary to achieve MPA goals.
  3. Using monitoring data and population models, we quantified expected responses of targeted species to MPA implementation and compared them to monitoring data.
  4. The model required two factors to explain observed responses in MPAs: (a) pre‐MPA harvest rates, which can vary at local spatial scales, and (b) recruitment variability before and after MPA establishment. Low recruitment years before MPA establishment in our study system drove deviations from expected equilibrium population size distributions and introduced an additional time lag to response detectability.
  5. Synthesis and applications. We combined monitoring data and population models to show how (a) harvest rates prior to Marine Protected Area (MPA) implementation, (b) variability in recruitment, and (c) initial population size structure determine whether a response to MPA establishment is detectable. Pre‐MPA harvest rates across MPAs plays a large role in MPA response detectability, demonstrating the importance of measuring this poorly known parameter. While an intuitive expectation is for response detectability to depend on recruitment variability and stochasticity in population trajectories after MPA establishment, we address the overlooked role of recruitment variability before MPA establishment, which alters the size structure at the time of MPA establishment. These factors provide MPA practitioners with reasons whether or not MPAs may lead to responses of targeted species. Our overall approach provides a framework for a critical step of adaptive management.

Shark aggregation and tourism: opportunities and challenges of an emerging phenomenon

Z. Shamir Z, S. Shamir Z, Tchernov D, Scheinin A, Becker N. Shark aggregation and tourism: opportunities and challenges of an emerging phenomenon. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology [Internet]. 2019 ;26(5):406 - 414. Available from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13504509.2019.1573769?journalCode=tsdw20
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $43.00
Type: Journal Article

In the last few winters, shark communities have been aggregating near the Israeli Mediterranean coast, at a specific point, near Hadera power station. This unusual phenomenon has fascinated residents, visitors, kayakers, divers, and swimmers. We analyse the effects of this intense human interest on the sharks, using contingent behaviour, in Hadera and in Ashkelon, where sharks are present and there is available infrastructure for their observation. We also report on changes in shark behaviour due to change in tourism intensity. We find a change of about ILS 4.1 million annually for both sites but a larger individual consumer surplus in Hadera, where sharks are currently observable. Touristic intensity crosses the threshold level by about 12% and making the socio-equilibrium sustainable for both humans and sharks would have a social cost of ILS 0.157 million. This paper, which is based on the assessment of conservation values to marine and coastal tourists, raises a need for spatial planning in order to protect this endangered species.

Harnessing Positive Species Interactions to Enhance Coastal Wetland Restoration

Renzi JJ, He Q, Silliman BR. Harnessing Positive Species Interactions to Enhance Coastal Wetland Restoration. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution [Internet]. 2019 ;7. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fevo.2019.00131/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Coastal wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems in the world. They generate critical services for humans including shoreline protection, carbon storage, pollution mitigation, and fisheries production. Restoration of coastal wetlands has historically been viewed as a secondary conservation strategy, but recently—given the continued loss of wetlands worldwide—many non-governmental and governmental organizations have elevated habitat restoration to be a primary method for wetland conservation. The long-held paradigm in coastal wetland restoration has been to restore target habitats by reducing physical stressors and avoiding competition among outplants, such as mangrove saplings or Spartina plugs. Recent ecological research, however, reveals that positive species interactions, such as facilitation, are critical to wetland recovery after disturbance. Here, we review the scientific evidence for the importance of positive species interactions in the recovery of salt-marsh and mangrove ecosystems and assess the extent to which they have been integrated into restoration studies. We found that only a small proportion of studies of marsh and mangrove restoration examined the effects of positive species interactions, despite the important role they play in the regrowth of coastal wetlands. We outline how positive species interactions can be systematically incorporated into future restoration work and discuss how this incorporation can help the reestablishment of coastal wetland biota through: (1) trophic facilitation, (2) stress reduction, and (3) associational defenses. The absence of positive interactions in restoration designs may partially explain the significant disparities between the functioning of natural and restored coastal plant ecosystems.

A demographic model for the conservation and management of the European eel: an application to a Mediterranean coastal lagoonAbstract

Bevacqua D, Melià P, Schiavina M, Crivelli AJ, De Leo GA, Gatto M. A demographic model for the conservation and management of the European eel: an application to a Mediterranean coastal lagoonAbstract Durif C. ICES Journal of Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://academic.oup.com/icesjms/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/icesjms/fsz118/5532120
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $45.00
Type: Journal Article

We present a general size- and age-structured demographic model of the continental phase of catadromous eels’ life cycle, allowing for the incorporation of (i) fluctuations of juvenile recruitment, (ii) density-dependent settlement and sex determination, (iii) plastic body growth and sexual dimorphism, and (iv) vital rates driven by body size rather than age. The model can be used to assess (i) standing stock, (ii) fishing yield, and (iii) spawner production under different recruitment and management scenarios. We demonstrate the model by applying it to a European eel stock (Camargue lagoons, southern France) that was continuously monitored for 17 years (1993–2009). Results indicate that the upper limit to settlement in the Camargue water system is ∼419 eels ha−1 per year. A balanced sex ratio occurs for a settlement of ∼94 eels ha−1, shifting towards males at higher densities. Catchability is higher in adult silver eels than in sub-adult yellow eels, possibly due to behavioural differences. Estimated standing stock ranged between 7 and 19 kg ha−1. Fishing yield was 5–7 kg ha−1 per year, while spawner escapement ranged between 0 and 13 kg ha−1per year (<30% of what would occur in the absence of fishing and obstacles to migration).

Clinical Pathology of Plastic Ingestion in Marine Birds and Relationships with Blood Chemistry

Lavers JL, Hutton I, Bond AL. Clinical Pathology of Plastic Ingestion in Marine Birds and Relationships with Blood Chemistry. Environmental Science & Technology [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.est.9b02098
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $40.00
Type: Journal Article

Pollution of the environment with plastic debris is a significant and rapidly expanding threat to biodiversity due to its abundance, durability, and persistence. Current knowledge of the negative effects of debris on wildlife is largely based on consequences that are readily observed, such as entanglement or starvation. Many interactions with debris, however, result in less visible and poorly documented sublethal effects, and as a consequence, the true impact of plastic is underestimated. We investigated the sublethal effects of ingested plastic in Flesh-footed Shearwaters (Ardenna carneipes) using blood chemistry parameters as a measure of bird health. The presence of plastic had a significant negative effect on bird morphometrics and blood calcium levels and a positive relationship with the concentration of uric acid, cholesterol, and amylase. That we found blood chemistry parameters being related to plastic pollution is one of the few examples to date of the sublethal effects of marine debris and highlights that superficially healthy individuals may still experience the negative consequences of ingesting plastic debris. Moving beyond crude measures, such as reduced body mass, to physiological parameters will provide much needed insight into the nuanced and less visible effects of plastic.

Adaptive responses of fishes to climate change: Feedback between physiology and behaviour

Rodriguez-Dominguez A, Connell SD, Leung JYS, Nagelkerken I. Adaptive responses of fishes to climate change: Feedback between physiology and behaviour. Science of The Total Environment [Internet]. In Press . Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969719333406?dgcid=raven_sd_search_email
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $41.95
Type: Journal Article

The adaptive capacity of individuals, from their cells to their overall performance, allows species to adjust to environmental change. We assess a hierarchy of responses (from cells to organismal growth and behaviour) to understand the flexibility of adaptive responses to future ocean conditions (warming and acidification) in two species of fish with short lifespans by conducting a long-term mesocosm/aquarium experiment. Fishes were exposed to elevated CO2 and temperature in a factorial design for a five-month period. We found a feedback mechanism between cellular defence and behavioural responses. In circumstances where their antioxidant defence mechanism was activated (i.e. warming or acidification), increased feeding rates prevented oxidative damage (i.e. during warming). However, when feeding rates failed to increase to provide additional energy needed for antioxidant defence, oxidative damage could not be prevented (warming + acidification). In contrast, when the activation of antioxidant defence was not required, energy intake from increased feeding was redirected to increased fish growth (acidification, warming + acidification), whilst no gain in growth rate was observed where feeding remained unchanged (acidification or warming). This adaptive strategy seems to rely on the inherent behavioural response of fishes to their environment and such adjustability shows the kind of responses that organisms may express to prevail in future ocean climate. Indeed, assessing the link between responses from cellular to organismal levels, using a diversity of fitness indicators and behaviour, provides a fundamental understanding of how organisms as a whole may adjust to prevail in a future world.

Debating the unknowns of marine oil exploration in Mexico

Quist L-M, Nygren A. Debating the unknowns of marine oil exploration in Mexico. The Extractive Industries and Society [Internet]. In Press . Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214790X19300425?dgcid=raven_sd_search_email
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $31.50
Type: Journal Article

Marine extraction accounts for one third of the world’s hydrocarbon production. Several analyses suggest that seismic surveys employed in oil exploration harm marine life; however, their long-term impacts have not been extensively studied. We examine debates between fishers, the oil industry, and governmental authorities over the effects of oil explorations in Tabasco, Mexico. The study employs ideas from historical ontology in tracing the contested production of truth-claims about exploration in the context of scientific uncertainty. It shows how actors, through their different engagements with the sea, and with different degrees of power, frame claims about the relations between exploration and fish. We argue that fishers, through their efforts to “think like fish” produce situated knowledges about the effects of oil exploration. They explain a disappearance of fish by their understanding that seismic surveys disturb fish migration, impair the hearing of fish and cause fish death. Oil company and governmental representatives frame the impacts of oil exploration as insignificant by separating environmental and social dimensions, by isolating individual exploration events, and by arguing that possible effects are transitional. Due to scientific indeterminacy, oil exploration is malleable in the hands of powerful political representations that understate its possible impacts on marine socio-environments.

Planning for a sustainable marine future? Marine spatial planning in the German exclusive economic zone of the North Sea

Aschenbrenner M, Winder GM. Planning for a sustainable marine future? Marine spatial planning in the German exclusive economic zone of the North Sea. Applied Geography [Internet]. 2019 ;110:102050. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0143622818301796?dgcid=raven_sd_search_email
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

This study re-examines the marine spatial planning (MSP) process for Germany's North Sea exclusive economic zone (EEZ), one of the earliest European examples of MSP. It does so in order to answer whether in this case MSP was an example of post-political planning (Swyngedouw, 2010; Tafon, 2018; Tafon et al., 2018). Building on earlier research (Jay et al., 2012; Kannen, 2014), the analysis adopts a political ecology perspective, and uses a stakeholder analysis and interviews to identify main actors in the MSP process and their interests in and perceptions of the North Sea, its management and the MSP process. The results confirm earlier research that MSP was used strategically to facilitate offshore wind energy development at the expense of other uses. MSP resolved some matters of spatial competition but not all, and solved few underlying conflicts, since these involve deep-seated tensions among diverse actor perceptions of the North Sea and its management. The research finds the German North Sea EEZ remains a politicized environment, in which MSP is a post-political approach to planning. The research highlights inter-agency tensions and politics as further signs that MSP as post-political planning has not eliminated politics in sea management.

Combined climate and nutritional performance of seafoods

Hallström E, Bergman K, Mifflin K, Parker R, Tyedmers P, Troell M, Ziegler F. Combined climate and nutritional performance of seafoods. Journal of Cleaner Production [Internet]. 2019 ;230:402 - 411. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959652619313162?dgcid=raven_sd_recommender_email
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

National authorities in many countries advise their populations to eat more seafood, for health and sometimes for environmental purposes, but give little guidance as to what type of seafood should be consumed. The large diversity in species and production methods results in variability both in the nutritional content and in the environmental performance of seafoods. More targeted dietary advice for sustainable seafood consumption requires a better understanding of the relative nutritional benefits against environmental costs of various types of seafood. This study analyzes the combined climate and nutritional performance of seafood commonly consumed in Sweden, originating all over the world. Nutrient density scores, assessed by seven alternative methods, are combined with species- technology- and origin-specific greenhouse gas emission data for 37 types of seafood. An integrated score indicates which seafood products provide the greatest nutritional value at the lowest climate costs and hence should be promoted from this perspective. Results show that seafoods consumed in Sweden differ widely in nutritional value as well as climate impact and that the two measures are not correlated across all species. Dietary changes towards increased consumption of more seafood choices where a correlation exists (e.g. pelagic species like sprat, herring and mackerel) would benefit both health and climate. Seafoods with a higher climate impact in relation to their nutritional value (e.g. shrimp, Pangasius and plaice) should, on the other hand, not be promoted in dietary advice. The effect of individual nutrients and implications of different nutrient density scores is evaluated. This research is a first step towards modelling the joint nutritional and climate benefits of seafood as a concrete baseline for policy-making, e.g. in dietary advice. It should be followed up by modelling other species, including environmental toxins in seafood in the nutrition score, and expanding to cover other environmental aspects.

Microplastics cause neurotoxicity, oxidative damage and energy-related changes and interact with the bioaccumulation of mercury in the European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758)

Barboza LGabriel An, Vieira LRusso, Branco V, Figueiredo N, Carvalho F, Carvalho C, Guilhermino L. Microplastics cause neurotoxicity, oxidative damage and energy-related changes and interact with the bioaccumulation of mercury in the European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758). Aquatic Toxicology [Internet]. 2018 ;195:49 - 57. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166445X17303776?dgcid=raven_sd_recommender_email
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Microplastics pollution is a global paradigm that raises concern in relation to environmental and human health. This study investigated toxic effects of microplastics and mercury in the European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax), a marine fish widely used as food for humans. A short-term (96 h) laboratory bioassay was done by exposing juvenile fish to microplastics (0.26 and 0.69 mg/L), mercury (0.010 and 0.016 mg/L) and binary mixtures of the two substances using the same concentrations, through test media. Microplastics alone and mercury alone caused neurotoxicity through acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, increased lipid oxidation (LPO) in brain and muscle, and changed the activities of the energy-related enzymes lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH). All the mixtures caused significant inhibition of brain AChE activity (64–76%), and significant increase of LPO levels in brain (2.9–3.4 fold) and muscle (2.2–2.9 fold) but not in a concentration-dependent manner; mixtures containing low and high concentrations of microplastics caused different effects on IDH and LDH activity. Mercury was found to accumulate in the brain and muscle, with bioaccumulation factors of 4–7 and 25–40, respectively. Moreover, in the analysis of mercury concentrations in both tissues, a significant interaction between mercury and microplastics was found. The decay of mercury in the water increased with microplastics concentration, and was higher in the presence of fish than in their absence. Overall, these results indicate that: microplastics influence the bioaccumulation of mercury by D. labrax juveniles; microplastics, mercury and their mixtures (ppb range concentrations) cause neurotoxicity, oxidative stress and damage, and changes in the activities of energy-related enzymes in juveniles of this species; mixtures with the lowest and highest concentrations of their components induced different effects on some biomarkers. These findings and other published in the literature raise concern regarding high level predators and humans consuming fish being exposed to microplastics and heavy metals, and highlight the need of more research on the topic.

An institutional framework for addressing marine genetic resources under the proposed treaty for marine biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction

Tladi D. An institutional framework for addressing marine genetic resources under the proposed treaty for marine biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction. International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics [Internet]. 2019 ;19(4-5):485 - 495. Available from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10784-019-09449-4
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

 

In December 2017, the United Nations General Assembly decided to convene an intergovernmental conference to elaborate an international legally binding instrument on marine biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction. This legally binding instrument would address four elements, namely marine protected areas, marine genetic resources, environmental impact assessments and capacity building and technology transfer. One of the indicators for the success of the legally binding instrument will be an institutional mechanism that is both effective and that can co-exist with existing mechanisms. There is already a proposal for an institutional mechanism under the implementing agreement. However, the proposed institutional mechanism was developed largely with marine protected areas in mind. The purpose of this article is to determine whether this proposed mechanism could work also for the marine genetic resources element of the proposed treaty. This is necessitated by the fact that the marine genetic resources element of the proposed treaty is far more complex and raises issues that are more intractable.

Ocean acidification and elevated temperature negatively affect recruitment, oxygen consumption and calcification of the reef-building Dendropoma cristatum early life stages: Evidence from a manipulative field study

Alessi C, Giomi F, Furnari F, Sarà G, Chemello R, Milazzo M. Ocean acidification and elevated temperature negatively affect recruitment, oxygen consumption and calcification of the reef-building Dendropoma cristatum early life stages: Evidence from a manipulative field study. Science of The Total Environment [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969719333960?dgcid=raven_sd_search_email
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $41.95
Type: Journal Article

Expected temperature rise and seawater pH decrease may affect marine organism fitness. By a transplant experiment involving air-temperature manipulation along a natural CO2 gradient, we investigated the effects of high pCO2 (~1100 μatm) and elevated temperature (up to +2 °C than ambient conditions) on the reproductive success, recruitment, growth, shell chemical composition and oxygen consumption of the early life stages of the intertidal reef-building vermetid Dendropoma cristatum. Reproductive success was predominantly affected by temperature increase, with encapsulated embryos exhibiting higher survival in control than elevated temperature conditions, which were in turn unaffected by altered seawater pH levels. Decreasing pH (alone or in combination with temperature) significantly affected the shell growth and shell chemical composition of both embryos and recruits. Elevated temperatures along with lower pH led to decreases of ~30% oxygen consumption and ~60% recruitment. Our results suggest that the early life stages of the reef-builder D. cristatum are highly sensitive to expected environmental change, with major consequences on the intertidal vermetid reefs they build and indirectly on the high biodiversity levels they support.

Setting ecological expectations for adaptive management of marine protected areas

Nickols KJ, J. White W, Malone D, Carr MH, Starr RM, Baskett ML, Hastings A, Botsford LW. Setting ecological expectations for adaptive management of marine protected areas. Journal of Applied Ecology [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://besjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/1365-2664.13463
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article
  1. Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are being implemented worldwide, yet there are few cases where managers make specific predictions of the response of previously harvested populations to MPA implementation.
  2. Such predictions are needed to evaluate whether MPAs are working as expected, and if not, why. This evaluation is necessary to perform adaptive management, identifying whether and when adjustments to management might be necessary to achieve MPA goals.
  3. Using monitoring data and population models, we quantified expected responses of targeted species to MPA implementation and compared them to monitoring data.
  4. The model required two factors to explain observed responses in MPAs: (a) pre‐MPA harvest rates, which can vary at local spatial scales, and (b) recruitment variability before and after MPA establishment. Low recruitment years before MPA establishment in our study system drove deviations from expected equilibrium population size distributions and introduced an additional time lag to response detectability.
  5. Synthesis and applications. We combined monitoring data and population models to show how (a) harvest rates prior to Marine Protected Area (MPA) implementation, (b) variability in recruitment, and (c) initial population size structure determine whether a response to MPA establishment is detectable. Pre‐MPA harvest rates across MPAs plays a large role in MPA response detectability, demonstrating the importance of measuring this poorly known parameter. While an intuitive expectation is for response detectability to depend on recruitment variability and stochasticity in population trajectories after MPA establishment, we address the overlooked role of recruitment variability before MPA establishment, which alters the size structure at the time of MPA establishment. These factors provide MPA practitioners with reasons whether or not MPAs may lead to responses of targeted species. Our overall approach provides a framework for a critical step of adaptive management.

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