Literature Library

Currently indexing 4515 titles

Managing consequences of climate-driven species redistribution requires integration of ecology, conservation and social science

Bonebrake TC, Brown CJ, Bell JD, Blanchard JL, Chauvenet A, Champion C, Chen I-C, Clark TD, Colwell RK, Danielsen F, et al. Managing consequences of climate-driven species redistribution requires integration of ecology, conservation and social science. Biological Reviews [Internet]. 2017 . Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/brv.12344/abstract
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $38.00
Type: Journal Article

Climate change is driving a pervasive global redistribution of the planet's species. Species redistribution poses new questions for the study of ecosystems, conservation science and human societies that require a coordinated and integrated approach. Here we review recent progress, key gaps and strategic directions in this nascent research area, emphasising emerging themes in species redistribution biology, the importance of understanding underlying drivers and the need to anticipate novel outcomes of changes in species ranges. We highlight that species redistribution has manifest implications across multiple temporal and spatial scales and from genes to ecosystems. Understanding range shifts from ecological, physiological, genetic and biogeographical perspectives is essential for informing changing paradigms in conservation science and for designing conservation strategies that incorporate changing population connectivity and advance adaptation to climate change. Species redistributions present challenges for human well-being, environmental management and sustainable development. By synthesising recent approaches, theories and tools, our review establishes an interdisciplinary foundation for the development of future research on species redistribution. Specifically, we demonstrate how ecological, conservation and social research on species redistribution can best be achieved by working across disciplinary boundaries to develop and implement solutions to climate change challenges. Future studies should therefore integrate existing and complementary scientific frameworks while incorporating social science and human-centred approaches. Finally, we emphasise that the best science will not be useful unless more scientists engage with managers, policy makers and the public to develop responsible and socially acceptable options for the global challenges arising from species redistributions.

Entanglement in and ingestion of fishing gear and other marine debris by Florida manatees, 1993 to 2012

Reinert TR, Spellman AC, Bassett BL. Entanglement in and ingestion of fishing gear and other marine debris by Florida manatees, 1993 to 2012. Endangered Species Research [Internet]. 2017 ;32:415 - 427. Available from: http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/esr/v32/p415-427/
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Entanglement in and ingestion of marine debris by marine life has become a recognized threat worldwide, and the endangered Florida manatee is no exception. Manatees are known to become entangled in various types of fishing gear and other marine debris, and foreign objects are often found in the gastrointestinal tract of dead manatees. We examined a 20 yr dataset (1993 to 2012) of manatee rescue and necropsy records for evidence of entanglement in or ingestion of marine debris. In over 6500 manatee necropsy reports, over 11% either had ingested or showed evidence of entanglement in marine debris (or both). Fifty manatees died as a direct result of either entanglement in or, most commonly, ingestion of marine debris; fishery-related gear was involved in over 70% of these cases. With respect to live manatee rescues (n = 1244), over 25% were related to entanglement in or ingestion of fishery gear or marine debris, making entanglement the top anthropogenic reason for rescue during this time. Fishing gear, primarily trap lines and monofilament fishing lines, was a factor in over 85% of these rescues. Female manatees in particular were disproportionally affected by marine debris. The Florida manatee represents an example of estuarine fauna that is subject to harm from marine debris, and continued efforts to reduce and remove marine debris from estuarine environments will benefit manatees and other estuarine species.

Estimating fish abundance at spawning aggregations from courtship sound levels

Rowell TJ, Demer DA, Aburto-Oropeza O, Cota-Nieto JJosé, Hyde JR, Erisman BE. Estimating fish abundance at spawning aggregations from courtship sound levels. Scientific Reports [Internet]. 2017 ;7(1). Available from: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-03383-8
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Sound produced by fish spawning aggregations (FSAs) permits the use of passive acoustic methods to identify the timing and location of spawning. However, difficulties in relating sound levels to abundance have impeded the use of passive acoustics to conduct quantitative assessments of biomass. Here we show that models of measured fish sound production versus independently measured fish density can be generated to estimate abundance and biomass from sound levels at FSAs. We compared sound levels produced by spawning Gulf Corvina (Cynoscion othonopterus) with simultaneous measurements of density from active acoustic surveys in the Colorado River Delta, Mexico. During the formation of FSAs, we estimated peak abundance at 1.53 to 1.55 million fish, which equated to a biomass of 2,133 to 2,145 metric tons. Sound levels ranged from 0.02 to 12,738 Pa2, with larger measurements observed on outgoing tides. The relationship between sound levels and densities was variable across the duration of surveys but stabilized during the peak spawning period after high tide to produce a linear relationship. Our results support the use of active acoustic methods to estimate density, abundance, and biomass of fish at FSAs; using appropriately scaled empirical relationships, sound levels can be used to infer these estimates.

Conservation targets in marine protected area management suffer from shifting baseline syndrome: A case study on the Dogger Bank

Plumeridge AA, Roberts CM. Conservation targets in marine protected area management suffer from shifting baseline syndrome: A case study on the Dogger Bank. Marine Pollution Bulletin [Internet]. 2017 ;116(1-2):395 - 404. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X17300115
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

The Dogger Bank is a subtidal hill in the North Sea that is a candidate Special Area of Conservation under the EU Habitats Directive in UK waters. Historical records indicate that the Bank has been subject to human exploitation from before the 16th century but conservation objectives have been developed using recent survey data. This has the potential to significantly underestimate the alteration this ecosystem has experienced, making the Dogger Bank an example of shifting baseline syndrome in protected area management. We compile quantitative and qualitative descriptions from historical records of change in catch rates, fishing effort, price and fish size to show that there have been prolonged declines in abundance of fish on the Bank since the early 19th century. Use of present day data to inform conservation has led to unambitious recovery targets. Historical data, we argue, are an essential input to conservation decision making.

Displacement effects of heavy human use on coral reef predators within the Molokini Marine Life Conservation District

Filous A, Friedlander AM, Koike H, Lammers M, Wong A, Stone K, Sparks RT. Displacement effects of heavy human use on coral reef predators within the Molokini Marine Life Conservation District. Marine Pollution Bulletin [Internet]. 2017 . Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X17305118
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

The impact of marine ecotourism on reef predators is poorly understood and there is growing concern that overcrowding in Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) may disturb the species that these areas were established to protect. To improve our understanding of this issue, we used acoustic telemetry to examine the relationship between human activity at the Molokini Marine Life Conservation District (MLCD) and the habitat use of five reef-associated predators (Caranx melampygusCaranx ignobilisTriaenodon obesusCarcharhinus amblyrhynchos, and Aprion virscens). During peak hours of human use, there was a negative relationship (R2 = 0.77, P < 0.001) between the presence of bluefin trevally (Caranx melampygus) and vessels in subzone A. No other species showed strong evidence of this relationship. However, our results suggest that during this time, the natural ecosystem function that the reserve was established to protect may be compromised and overcrowding should be considered when managing MPAs.

Marine Ecoregions Level III

Anon. Marine Ecoregions Level III. 2009 .
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Map

These marine ecoregions are areas of general similarity in terms of physiographic, oceanographic and biological characteristics, which fall within the Exclusive Economic Zones of the North American countries.

These marine ecoregions are constructed as a spatial framework with three nested levels.

The Level I marine ecoregions displayed in this map capture ecosystem differences at the largest scale by grouping together large water masses and currents, enclosed seas, and regions of coherent sea surface temperature or ice cover.

The seaward boundaries of the marine ecoregions as mapped are approximate and do not represent the seaward boundaries of the ecoregions or an exact boundary of the Exclusive Economic Zones of the three countries.

Marine Ecoregions Level II

Anon. Marine Ecoregions Level II. 2009 .
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Map

These marine ecoregions are areas of general similarity in terms of physiographic, oceanographic and biological characteristics, which fall within the Exclusive Economic Zones of the North American countries.

These marine ecoregions are constructed as a spatial framework with three nested levels.

The Level I marine ecoregions displayed in this map capture ecosystem differences at the largest scale by grouping together large water masses and currents, enclosed seas, and regions of coherent sea surface temperature or ice cover.

The seaward boundaries of the marine ecoregions as mapped are approximate and do not represent the seaward boundaries of the ecoregions or an exact boundary of the Exclusive Economic Zones of the three countries.

Marine Ecoregions Level I

Anon. Marine Ecoregions Level I. 2009 .
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Map

These marine ecoregions are areas of general similarity in terms of physiographic, oceanographic and biological characteristics, which fall within the Exclusive Economic Zones of the North American countries.

These marine ecoregions are constructed as a spatial framework with three nested levels.

The Level I marine ecoregions displayed in this map capture ecosystem differences at the largest scale by grouping together large water masses and currents, enclosed seas, and regions of coherent sea surface temperature or ice cover.

The seaward boundaries of the marine ecoregions as mapped are approximate and do not represent the seaward boundaries of the ecoregions or an exact boundary of the Exclusive Economic Zones of the three countries.

North America's Marine Protected Areas

Anon. North America's Marine Protected Areas. [Internet]. 2012 . Available from: http://www3.cec.org/islandora/en/item/10690-north-americas-marine-protected-areas-north-american-short-film-series
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Miscellaneous

Through a unique collaboration of marine protected area agencies and aquarium learning centers in the three countries, a new series of short films highlights the vital role played by North America’s marine protected areas to support communities that depend on marine resources, provide exciting recreational experiences, enhance our scientific understanding, and help protect a large number of species, restore fisheries, and conserve key habitats.

Marine Priority Conservation Areas: Baja California to the Bering Sea

Morgan L, Maxwell S, Tsao F, Wilkinson TAC, Etnoyer P. Marine Priority Conservation Areas: Baja California to the Bering Sea. Montreal, Canada: Commission for Environmental Cooperation; 2005 p. 132 pp. Available from: http://www3.cec.org/islandora/en/item/2201-marine-priority-conservation-areas-baja-california-bering-sea
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

From the Gulf of California, with its deep canyons, nutrient-rich upwellings and high levels of endemism, to the 20,000 kilometers of bays, inlets and inland drainage systems of the Pacific Northwest and the high productivity of the Bering Sea, the west coast of North America is home to unique and important shared marine environments. It is also home to a great number of shared marine species—such as Pacific gray and blue whales, leatherback sea turtles, bluefin tuna, black brant geese and Heermann’s gulls—that migrate thousands of kilometers, moving across national borders without hesitation. Hence, be it through shared species or ecosystems, the marine environments of Canada, Mexico and the United States are intimately linked. Accordingly, action or inaction on one side of a border will have consequences for the shared living organisms occupying ecosystems with no definite boundaries.

Identifying priority conservation areas (PCAs) is one of several marine initiatives sponsored by the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) of North America as part of its Strategic Plan for North American Cooperation in the Conservation of Biodiversity. This report describes the process of identifying these PCAs—areas of trinational importance due to their ecological significance, threatened nature and opportunities for conservation—which are in need of biand trinational cooperative action for their successful conservation. Iteratively over the course of this project, the definition of PCAs was refined to reflect the goals of the CEC process, the variable nature of data available in the three nations, and the spatial scale of the Baja California to Bering Sea (B2B) region. Other initiatives advance a common framework for mapping marine ecoregions, identify and help protect species of common conservation concern, and work to provide a common understanding as well as a coordinated and complementary use of institutions, initiatives and tools in each country so as to implement an integrated Marine Protected Area (MPA) Network in North America. This PCA initiative seeks to detail where conservation action is immediately necessary. This identification charts a course for future conservation alliances and action in the B2B region.

A Guide to Ecological Scorecards for Marine Protected Areas in North America

Anon. A Guide to Ecological Scorecards for Marine Protected Areas in North America. Montreal, Canada: Commission for Environmental Cooperation; 2011 p. 49 pp. Available from: http://www3.cec.org/islandora/en/item/4184-guide-ecological-scorecards-marine-protected-areas-in-north-america
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

This guide is an introduction to the use of marine ecological scorecards and condition reports, which are tools for assessing the condition of marine protected areas in North America. Marine protected areas (MPAs) are managed marine and coastal areas of ecological significance, featuring species and/or properties which require special consideration. Managing these areas effectively helps conserve marine biodiversity in critical marine habitats.

Marine Ecoregions of North America

Wilkinson TAC, Wiken E, Creel JBezaury, Hourigan TF, Agardy T, Herrmann H, Janishevski L, Madden C, Morgan L, Padilla M. Marine Ecoregions of North America. Montreal, Canada: Commission for Environmental Cooperation; 2009 p. 200 pp. Available from: http://www3.cec.org/islandora/en/item/3256-marine-ecoregions-north-america
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

A book that celebrates the richness and wealth of our region's common ocean and coastal waters.

Guide for Planners and Managers to Design Resilient Marine Protected Area Networks in a Changing Climate

Anon. Guide for Planners and Managers to Design Resilient Marine Protected Area Networks in a Changing Climate. Montreal, Canada: Commission for Environmental Cooperation; 2012 p. 42 pp. Available from: http://www3.cec.org/islandora/en/item/10856-guide-planners-and-managers-design-resilient-marine-protected-area-networks-in
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

Climate change, along with pollution and overfishing, is one of the great challenges facing North America’s shared oceans today. Through the project Engaging Communities to Conserve Marine Biodiversity through NAMPAN (North American Marine Protected Areas Network) the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) gathered scientific information on the impact of climate change on marine protected area (MPA) networks to improve the design and management process for healthier, more resilient oceans.

Scientific Guidelines for Designing Resilient Marine Protected Area Networks in a Changing Climate

Brock RJ, Kenchington E, Martinez-Arroyo A eds. Scientific Guidelines for Designing Resilient Marine Protected Area Networks in a Changing Climate. Montreal, Canada: Commission for Environmental Cooperation; 2012 p. 95 pp. Available from: http://www3.cec.org/islandora/en/item/10820-scientific-guidelines-designing-resilient-marine-protected-area-networks-in-changing
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

Climate change, along with pollution and overfishing, is one of the great challenges facing North America’s shared oceans today. Through the project Engaging Communities to Conserve Marine Biodiversity through NAMPAN (North American Marine Protected Areas Network) the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) gathered scientific information on the impact of climate change on marine protected area (MPA) networks to improve the design and management process for healthier, more resilient oceans.

Capacity shortfalls hinder the performance of marine protected areas globally

Gill DA, Mascia MB, Ahmadia GN, Glew L, Lester SE, Barnes M, Craigie I, Darling ES, Free CM, Geldmann J, et al. Capacity shortfalls hinder the performance of marine protected areas globally. Nature [Internet]. 2017 . Available from: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature21708.html
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $32.00
Type: Journal Article

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are increasingly being used globally to conserve marine resources. However, whether many MPAs are being effectively and equitably managed, and how MPA management influences substantive outcomes remain unknown. We developed a global database of management and fish population data (433 and 218 MPAs, respectively) to assess: MPA management processes; the effects of MPAs on fish populations; and relationships between management processes and ecological effects. Here we report that many MPAs failed to meet thresholds for effective and equitable management processes, with widespread shortfalls in staff and financial resources. Although 71% of MPAs positively influenced fish populations, these conservation impacts were highly variable. Staff and budget capacity were the strongest predictors of conservation impact: MPAs with adequate staff capacity had ecological effects 2.9 times greater than MPAs with inadequate capacity. Thus, continued global expansion of MPAs without adequate investment in human and financial capacity is likely to lead to sub-optimal conservation outcomes.

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