Extreme Levels of Ocean Acidification Restructure the Plankton Community and Biogeochemistry of a Temperate Coastal Ecosystem: A Mesocosm Study

Last modified: 
February 16, 2021 - 5:31pm
Type: Journal Article
Year of publication: 2021
Date published: 01/2021
Authors: Carsten Spisla, Jan Taucher, Lennart Bach, Mathias Haunost, Tim Boxhammer, Andrew King, Bettany Jenkins, Joselynn Wallace, Andrea Ludwig, Jana Meyer, Paul Stange, Fabrizio Minutolo, Kai Lohbeck, Alice Nauendorf, Verena Kalter, Silke Lischka, Michael Sswat, Isabel Dörner, Stefanie Ismar-Rebitz, Nicole Aberle, Jaw Yong, Jean-Marie Bouquet, Anna Lechtenbörger, Peter Kohnert, Michael Krudewig, Ulf Riebesell
Journal title: Frontiers in Marine Science
Volume: 7

The oceans’ uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) decreases seawater pH and alters the inorganic carbon speciation – summarized in the term ocean acidification (OA). Already today, coastal regions experience episodic pH events during which surface layer pH drops below values projected for the surface ocean at the end of the century. Future OA is expected to further enhance the intensity of these coastal extreme pH events. To evaluate the influence of such episodic OA events in coastal regions, we deployed eight pelagic mesocosms for 53 days in Raunefjord, Norway, and enclosed 56–61 m3 of local seawater containing a natural plankton community under nutrient limited post-bloom conditions. Four mesocosms were enriched with CO2 to simulate extreme pCO2 levels of 1978 – 2069 μatm while the other four served as untreated controls. Here, we present results from multivariate analyses on OA-induced changes in the phyto-, micro-, and mesozooplankton community structure. Pronounced differences in the plankton community emerged early in the experiment, and were amplified by enhanced top-down control throughout the study period. The plankton groups responding most profoundly to high CO2 conditions were cyanobacteria (negative), chlorophyceae (negative), auto- and heterotrophic microzooplankton (negative), and a variety of mesozooplanktonic taxa, including copepoda (mixed), appendicularia (positive), hydrozoa (positive), fish larvae (positive), and gastropoda (negative). The restructuring of the community coincided with significant changes in the concentration and elemental stoichiometry of particulate organic matter. Results imply that extreme CO2 events can lead to a substantial reorganization of the planktonic food web, affecting multiple trophic levels from phytoplankton to primary and secondary consumers.

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