More so than wealthier, less nature-dependent social groups, the poor in tropical coastal regions suffer from adverse environmental change and need new income options. With high levels of saltwater intrusion into coastal lands, innovative brackish water aquaculture (BWA) including integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) are crucial adaptation options to the expanding marine waters. This article examines how poor Bangladeshi coastal residents view BWA, and what is needed to make BWA a viable and sustainable livelihood for the coastal poor. In sites that are affected by major salinity intrusion, we used a semi-structured questionnaire to interview 120 households. We examine three questions: (1) What kind of aquaculture is currently being undertaken in brackish/saline/coastal waters? (2) Do poor coastal residents see BWA (and, by implication the hitherto fairly unknown IMTA) as a viable and sustainable livelihood? (3) What is needed to make BWA a feasible and promising livelihood in Bangladesh? Our results show both information and perception biases obstruct in particular coastal poor women and men from engaging with innovative BWA. Their knowledge on ecosystem-based aquaculture was scarce and their views of aquaculture were related mainly to previous experiences with shrimp monoculture and its polarizing socio-economic effects. We propose some strategic fields of action to develop innovative BWA that also benefits coastal Bangladesh’s poorest people.
Aquaculture, Seafood, and Food Security
Chile is the second largest global producer of farmed salmon. The growth of salmon production has not been free of environmental challenges, such as the increasing use of pesticides to control the parasitic load of the sea lice Caligus rogercresseyi. The lack of the specificity of pesticides can potentially affect non-target organisms, as well as the structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems. The aim of this study, was to understand the effect of pesticides on natural microbial communities to the addition of the anti-lice pesticide azamethiphos, deltamethrin and emamectin benzoate, and their potential impact in ammonium uptake rates in the coast off central-southern Chile and Northern Patagonia. The addition of pesticides on natural microbial communities resulted in a rapid response in ammonium uptake, which was significant for the single use of pesticide, azamethiphos and emamectin benzoate, as well as the combination, azamethiphos, deltamethrin and emamectin benzoate. In northern Patagonia, azamethiphos addition produced a 53% decrease in photoautotrophic uptake. However, an increase, although variable, was observed in chemoautotrophic uptake. Emamectin benzoate produced a 36 to 77% decrease in chemo and photoautotrophic ammonium uptake, respectively. The combined use of pesticides, also produced up to 42% decrease in both photo and chemoautotrophic assimilation. We conclude that the use of pesticides in salmon farming produces diverse responses at the microbial level, stimulating and/or inhibiting microbial communities with subsequent impact on nitrogen budgets. Further studies are necessary to understand the impact of pesticides in the ecology of central-southern and northern Patagonia, Chile.
Forecasting of climate change impacts on marine aquaculture production has become a major research task, which requires taking into account the biases and uncertainties arising from ocean climate models in coastal areas, as well as considering culture management strategies. Focusing on the suspended mussel culture in the NW Iberian coastal upwelling system, we simulated current and future mussel growth by means of a multistructural net production Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model. We considered two scenarios and three ocean climate models to account for climate uncertainty, and applied a bias correction to the climate models in coastal areas. Our results show that the predicted impact of climate change on mussel growth is low compared with the role of the seeding time. However, the response of mussels varied across climate models, ranging from a minor growth decline to a moderate growth increase. Therefore, this work confirms that an accurate forecasting of climate change impacts on shellfish aquaculture should take into account the variability linked to both management strategies and climate uncertainty.
Worldwide, small-scale fisheries (SSF) are an important source of food and livelihoods for rural communities and contribute substantially to national economies. Women play crucial roles in these fisheries, yet their contributions are largely invisible, often ignored and unrecognized. We conducted household and focus group surveys to examine the role of indigenous Fijian (iTaukei) women in SSF, documenting fishing practices and contributions to household food security and income. Our results reinforced several traditional views, such as iTaukei women preferentially fishing closer to their villages; but also challenged other assumptions with women fishing a wider range of habitats (from inland rivers to the open ocean) and species than previously described, and many using a boat and fishing with men. In addition to gleaning for invertebrates and seaweed, women also caught over 100 species of fish. Women fished primarily for subsistence, emphasizing their significant contribution to household food security. Although almost half of the women sold part of their catch to supplement household incomes, they also engaged in other income earning livelihoods, and therefore were not solely dependent on fisheries. Of concern was the high targeting of nursery areas for fish and invertebrate species by women fishers, and species with low spawning potential ratios. Given the level of engagement in, and contributions to fisheries, the inclusion of iTaukei women fishers in fisheries planning and management is critical for ensuring the sustainability of SSF in Fiji. Furthermore, empowering women for full participation in fisheries and lifting them out of poverty requires a re-consideration of traditional gender norms in rural communities, which are already shifting and evolving.
This article offers a theological response to the Ten Commandments of Food (TCF) in the context of the marine ecological crisis. The TCF is a unique and effective campaign for food security which advocates for sustainable living through the mission of Christian churches. As the campaign includes farmers, it reframes food security and sustainability as a part of ecclesial life. However, the neglect of fish, fisher, and sea in the TCF has negative consequences for marine ecosystem. This exclusion endangers the sustainability of marine life and all those who depend on the sea for livelihood and sustenance. Therefore, this article suggests that it is essential to include fish, fisher, and sea in the TCF – noting that they have a crucial place in Christianity as depicted particularly in the ministry of Jesus and his disciples. This will make the TCF a more comprehensive campaign with positive contributions for marine life.
The present article reports the densities of planktonic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus elongatus) in three Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) localities, and the relationship between the abundance of adult sea lice on the salmon and the densities of planktonic sea lice stages, during a complete production cycle followed by a fallowing period. Samples were taken downstream inside and immediately outside of cages, at one locality with lice skirts and two localities without lice skirts. There were no differences in densities of planktonic sea lice in samples taken from the inside or the outside of cages for any of the localities. However, the proportion-non-zero of planktonic sea lice samples taken from inside the cage was higher during months with a temperature above 9°C (mean abundance: 0.40–2.5 individuals m–3) than months with temperature below 9°C (mean abundance: 0.02–0.21 individuals m–3, odds ratio of the proportion-non-zero: p < 0.01). Densities of planktonic sea lice correlated most strongly with temperature in the first year (τ = 0.44–0.57, p < 0.05). A significant correlation between the number of adult female lice on salmon and average density of plankton sea lice was found in the locality with lice skirts during the second year (τ = 0.43 inside cages, τ = 0.58 outside cages, both p values < 0.05). Background levels of planktonic sea lice in the succeeding fallowing period showed neither L. salmonis nor C. elongatus planktonic sea lice, suggesting that there was successful reduction of the densities of planktonic sea lice for this area during the fallowing period.
Large-scale atmospheric conditions in the Northeast Pacific Ocean affect both the freshwater environment in the Columbia River Basin and marine conditions along the coasts of Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia, resulting in correlated conditions in the two environments. For migrating species, such as salmonids that move through multiple habitats, these correlations can amplify the impact of good or poor physical conditions on growth and survival, as movements among habitats may not alleviate effects of anomalous conditions. Unfortunately, identifying the mechanistic drivers of salmon survival in space and time is hindered by these cross-habitat correlations. To address this issue, we modeled the marine survival of Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon with multiple indices of the marine environment and an explicit treatment of the effect of arrival timing from freshwater to the ocean, and found that both habitats contribute to marine survival rates. We show how this particular carryover effect of freshwater conditions on marine survival varies by year and rearing type (hatchery or wild), with a larger effect for wild fish. As environmental conditions change, incorporating effects from both freshwater and marine habitats into salmon survival models will become more important, and has the additional benefit of highlighting how management actions that affect arrival timing may improve marine survival.
Bivalves are widely distributed through diverse habitats, including estuaries and coastal lagoons which are extremely productive ecosystems, and play important roles in trophic webs and in ecosystems’ biological processes. Bivalves, as well as other marine resources, have been a part of the humans’ diet since mankind started fishing. These resources have high nutritional values, being constituted by high protein and low fat contents, and its consumption is associated with several health benefits. Marine resources, like bivalves, that are highly appreciated by humans, represent an important economic value, being under pressure due to an increasing demand. Thus, it is important a sustainable and balanced exploitation of these resources, based on the knowledge of the biochemical composition of the aquatic species to comprehend its’ potential and nutritional value.
The present study was conducted in Portugal, a country that has one of the highest consumptions of seafood in the world. Six commercially valuable species of marine bivalves were harvested in two distinct areas, Mondego estuary and Ria Formosa lagoon, and in two seasons, winter 2016 and summer 2017. The aims of the study were to: 1) determine the biochemical composition of each species in terms of total protein content, fatty acid and carbohydrate profiles; 2) identify potential spatial and seasonal variations between bivalve species sampled in each study area and season; 3) assess feeding behaviour of the bivalve species in both seasons and study areas.
The results indicated diverse biochemical composition among bivalve species, with total protein as the major component, followed by fatty acid content, particularly by the essential fatty acids DHA and EPA, and glycogen and glucose as the main polysaccharide and monosaccharide, respectively, found in all specimens. In general, all species demonstrated a tendency for omnivory, with only S. marginatus presenting a clear herbivorous behaviour in summer. Despite M. galloprovincialis and R. decussatus showed the highest nutritional value in the Mondego estuary, in both seasons, it was more noticeable in winter. In Ria Formosa, C. edule and R. decussatus showed the highest nutritious value in both seasons, while C. gigas showed higher nutritive value in summer.
Aquaculture in Brazil probably started in the 17th century, during the Dutch occupation of the northeastern region. Currently, this activity can be divided into five main sectors, defined by tradition and type of cultured organism: freshwater fish, marine shrimp, mollusks, freshwater prawns and frogs. Production in 2019 was estimated at 800,000 tonnes, representing a gross revenue of US$ 1 billion. Freshwater fish is predominantly produced, followed by marine shrimp. The main farmed species are Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) and the Pacific white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Other species have great local socio-economic importance. The bulk of production comes from small farms: more than 80 % have less than 2 ha. Brazil has more than 200 thousand freshwater fish farms, about 3000 marine shrimp farms, and about 100 aquaculture research institutions. A large domestic market is available for edible fish and shellfish, ornamentals, baitfish and hatchery-reared juveniles for biomitigation purposes. The challenge is to develop truly sustainable production systems to support a perennial industry. New technologies, including digital devices and simple disruptive innovations, can increase productivity and support the shift to a circular economy, bioeconomics and sustainability supported by science-based innovations and knowledge.
To contribute to the debate about sustainable seafood consumption, this article considers the role of mandatory food labeling. The article first flags the rise of a policy paradigm of shared responsibility and policy imperatives at various levels calling for increased integration of the citizen/consumer into public regimes, including in fisheries governance. It then explores the options available to citizen/consumers to engage in the fisheries regime in different stages of the value chain and evaluates their readiness to respond to the expectations. Mandatory food labeling of seafood is introduced as an under-unexplored governance tool, alongside the key enabling technological and policy trends. The rise of transparency and traceability, both as norms and a set of technological capabilities, is highlighted as an opportunity for implementation of mandatory seafood labeling. While recognizing equity challenges and various supplementary actions needed to ensure an effective behavioral and attitudinal shift toward more engaged governance (better education and enforcement and an enabling social setting), the article suggests to further explore mandatory labeling within the governance toolbox. It should be particularly relevant in the context of developed markets with global trade and political influence, and as means of fostering ocean literacy and transparent, participative and deliberative kind of governance.