Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)

A multi-elemental approach to assess potential contamination in tourist beaches: The case of Loreto Bay (Marine Protected Area), NW Mexico

Jonathan MP, Rodriguez-Espinosa PF, Sujitha SB, Shruti VC, Martinez-Tavera E. A multi-elemental approach to assess potential contamination in tourist beaches: The case of Loreto Bay (Marine Protected Area), NW Mexico. Marine Pollution Bulletin [Internet]. 2019 ;146:729 - 740. Available from: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0025326X19305314
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.59
Type: Journal Article

Metal/metalloid concentrations in water sediment and commercial fishes of Loreto Maritime National Park (MNP), Baja California Sur, Mexico were determined for a comprehensive geochemical study. In-situ physical characteristics (pH, conductivity, redox potential, dissolved oxygen, turbidity) of water clearly indicated the unique oceanographic properties of the Gulf of California. Likewise, the distribution pattern of metals/metalloid in water, sediments and fishes denoted the influences of local geology, longshore currents, upwelling process, natural hydrothermal vents and the 100-year old mining activities of Santa Rosalia region, situated to the north of Loreto. Calculated carcinogenic indices in commercial fish species showed safe human consumption. Thus, the present research validates a comprehensive geochemical study of protected areas upholding the need for continuous monitoring for a better conservation of coastal ecosystems.

A rising tide: California's ongoing commitment to monitoring, managing and enforcing its marine protected areas

Murray S, Hee TT. A rising tide: California's ongoing commitment to monitoring, managing and enforcing its marine protected areas. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2019 :104920. Available from: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0964569119301206
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

In 2012, California completed its marine protected area (MPA) planning and designation process, yielding a network of 124 MPAs from the Mexican border to Oregon. The management effort that has followed is comprehensive and strategic, with a focus on scientific monitoring, interagency coordination, public education and outreach, and enforcement. Initial monitoring results show more and bigger fish, especially in older MPAs where the benefits of limiting fishing have had longer to accrue. Today, California state agencies increasingly acknowledge and contemplate MPA protections in their permitting decisions, as regional and statewide outreach and education efforts enhance public awareness, social capital and stewardship. While enforcement remains challenging in a marine region as large and populous as California, the state has taken important steps to promote compliance with new MPA regulations and—with the support of the state legislature—has strengthened laws to address poaching. As new MPAs are established throughout the world in accordance with global targets, California's post-designation efforts provide a valuable and educational case study for local, national and international MPA managers.

A governance analysis of Ningaloo and Shark Bay Marine Parks, Western Australia: Putting the ‘eco’ in tourism to build resilience but threatened in long-term by climate change?

Jones PJS. A governance analysis of Ningaloo and Shark Bay Marine Parks, Western Australia: Putting the ‘eco’ in tourism to build resilience but threatened in long-term by climate change?. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2019 :103636. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X19303458
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

The governance frameworks for Ningaloo Marine Park (NMP) and Shark Bay Marine Park (SBMP) are explored, employing the MPA governance analysis framework. Both face similar conflicts typical of ecotourism, particularly related to the impacts of recreational fishing and marine wildlife tourism. A high diversity of incentives is found to be used, the combination of which promotes effectiveness in achieving conservation objectives and equity in governance. Highly evolved regulations have provided for depleted spangled emperor (Lethrinus nebulosus) stocks in NMP to stabilise and begin recovery, and pink snapper (Pagrus auratus) stocks in SBMP to recover from past depletions, though there are still concerns about recreational fishing impacts. The governance frameworks for marine wildlife tourism are considered extremely good practice. Some incentives need strengthening in both cases, particularly capacity for enforcement, penalties for deterrence and cross-jurisdictional coordination. In NMP there was also a need to promote transparency in making research and monitoring results available, and to address tensions with the recreational fishing sector by building linkages to provide for their specific representation, as part of a strategy to build trust and cooperation with this sector. Both case studies represent world-leading good practice in addressing proximal impacts from local activities, but in the longer-term the foundation species of both marine parks are critically threatened by the distal impacts of climate change. A diversity of incentives has promoted resilience in the short-term, but global action to mitigate climate change is the only way to promote the long-term resilience of these iconic marine ecosystems.

Categorizing global MPAs: A cluster analysis approach

Bohorquez JJ, Dvarskas A, Pikitch EK. Categorizing global MPAs: A cluster analysis approach. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2019 ;108:103663. Available from: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0308597X19304439
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are a widely used and flexible policy tool to help preserve marine biodiversity. They range in size and governance complexity from small communally managed MPAs, to massive MPAs on the High Seas managed by multinational organizations. As of August 2018, the Atlas of Marine Protection (MPAtlas.org) had catalogued information on over 12,000 Marine Protected Areas. We analyzed this global database to determine groups of MPAs whose characteristics best distinguished the diversity of MPA attributes globally, based upon our comprehensive sample. Groups were identified by pairing a Principal Components Analysis (PCA) with a k-means cluster analysis using five variables; age of MPA, area of MPA, no-take area within MPA, latitude of the MPA's center, and Human Development Index (HDI) of the host country. Seven statistically distinct groups of MPAs emerged from this analysis and we describe and discuss the potential implications of their respective characteristics for MPA management. The analysis yields important insights into patterns and characteristics of MPAs around the world, including clusters of especially old MPAs (greater than 25 and 66 years of age), clusters distributed across nations with higher (HDI ≥ 0.827) or lower (HDI ≤ 0.827) levels of development, and majority no-take MPAs. Our findings also include statistical verification of Large Scale Marine Protected Areas (LSMPAs, approximately >180,000km2) and a sub-class of LSMPA's we call “Giant MPAs” (GMPAs, approximately >1,000,000km2). As a secondary outcome, future research may use the clusters identified in this paper to track variability in MPA performance indicators across clusters (e.g., biodiversity preservation/restoration, fish biomass) and thereby identify relationships between cluster and performance outcomes. MPA management can also be improved by creating communication networks that connect similarly clustered MPAs for sharing common challenges and best practices.

A rising tide: California's ongoing commitment to monitoring, managing and enforcing its marine protected areas

Murray S, Hee TT. A rising tide: California's ongoing commitment to monitoring, managing and enforcing its marine protected areas. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. In Press :104920. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569119301206
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

In 2012, California completed its marine protected area (MPA) planning and designation process, yielding a network of 124 MPAs from the Mexican border to Oregon. The management effort that has followed is comprehensive and strategic, with a focus on scientific monitoring, interagency coordination, public education and outreach, and enforcement. Initial monitoring results show more and bigger fish, especially in older MPAs where the benefits of limiting fishing have had longer to accrue. Today, California state agencies increasingly acknowledge and contemplate MPA protections in their permitting decisions, as regional and statewide outreach and education efforts enhance public awareness, social capital and stewardship. While enforcement remains challenging in a marine region as large and populous as California, the state has taken important steps to promote compliance with new MPA regulations and—with the support of the state legislature—has strengthened laws to address poaching. As new MPAs are established throughout the world in accordance with global targets, California's post-designation efforts provide a valuable and educational case study for local, national and international MPA managers.

Public support for conservation may decay with increasing residence time in suboptimal marine protected areas

Afonso AS, Fidelis LL, Roque PL, Galindo R, Dionisio W, Veras LB, Hazin FHV. Public support for conservation may decay with increasing residence time in suboptimal marine protected areas. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2019 ;108:103665. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X19300089
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are potentially effective conservation and management instruments yet they often produce socioeconomic conflicts which may challenge their success. Knowledge and perceptions about environmental subjects among MPA residents were examined to identify possible effects of conservation policies upon local communities. Sharks were used as a proxy for wildlife given their local relevance and socioenvironmental context. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data from 134 randomly-selected residents of Fernando de Noronha (FEN), Brazil. Affinity towards nature tended to decrease among people >44 years old, whereas >10 years residents were more associated with negative feelings about sharks. Homogeneity in knowledge was noticed but perceptions decreased conspicuously across residence time-classes. Only 33% of respondents reported unarguable MPA benefits to local welfare, while several problems pertaining to infrastructure, management and resources were mentioned. These results are worrisome because they might translate into growing frustration along with residence time, which could potentially jeopardize the success of conservation policies. Wildlife conservation and at least partial improvements to welfare being positively signalized by a relevant proportion of respondents suggest an encouraging potential for relationship improvement between MPAs and stakeholders. Nonetheless, the long-term sustainability of inhabited MPAs could depend on properly integrating human users and ensuring their support and compliance, which must be considered while designing management strategies. Given the prestige of FEN in the South Atlantic and worldwide, it is important that this MPA delivers successful, sustainable outcomes that can be representative of efficient conservation trajectories to be replicated elsewhere.

Application of the Ostrom framework in the analysis of a social-ecological system with multiple resources in a marine protected area

Palomo LE, Hernández-Flores A. Application of the Ostrom framework in the analysis of a social-ecological system with multiple resources in a marine protected area. PeerJ [Internet]. 2019 ;7:e7374. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6698133/
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The framework proposed by Ostrom (2009) has become one of the most utilized tools to address the complexity of social-ecological systems. Most cases use this framework to analyze the systems from the perspective of a single resource unit. However, the livelihoods in several coastal communities are diverse, so that the users interact with multiple common-pool resources, which makes their analysis difficult. In this sense, it is important to identify the key elements of management to achieve the sustainable use of the resources. In this study, we were able to do this in a coastal community where commercial fishing, ecotourism, and recreational fishing coexist. The system of interest, located in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico, was subdivided by resource type using a multi-method approach to data collection including surveys, interviews, and records review. A conceptual map was developed that shows how the second-tier variables are integrated through the governance and actors with the biophysical system. The actors involved in lobster fishing achieved a more complex governance system, followed by the ecotourism and recreational fishing; the complexity of the governance was related with the equity level of the actors. The analysis revealed the research gaps to develop management strategies and improve the sustainability of the system.

Impact evaluation and conservation outcomes in marine protected areas: A case study of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park

Fraser KA, Adams VM, Pressey RL, Pandolfi JM. Impact evaluation and conservation outcomes in marine protected areas: A case study of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. Biological Conservation [Internet]. 2019 ;238:108185. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0006320718316525?dgcid=raven_sd_search_email
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

While marine protected areas are being expanded to meet international conservation targets and protect biodiversity from increasing anthropogenic threats, our understanding of the conservation impact of such interventions is limited. Hailed as a success globally, the rezoning of Australia's Great Barrier Reef Marine Park in 2004 was complex and controversial. Despite substantial research within the Marine park, little rigorous evaluation has been undertaken of the rezoning's biological impact - the difference increased protection has made to biodiversity relative to that expected without protection. We review available data of measures of biological impact from ‘new’ no-take zones established in the rezoning and those established under previous zoning. We found 48 studies reporting 782 measures of impact based on comparisons of biological indicators in no-take zones with fished areas. Overwhelmingly, impacts were neutral (57%) or positive (33%). Few data supported causal relationships between new no-take zones and improvements in biological indicators (48 of 159 impacts). The probability of a positive impact increased with time from establishment of no-take zones. Limited conclusions can be drawn from other data. We evaluated whether these measures of impact were robust based on analysis of six key principles of impact evaluation. Sampling was not designed to support causal inferences. Biological monitoring and evaluation designs were limited in providing evidence of the impact of protection. Improved methods that include credible counterfactual data can address limitations of current practice. We highlight ways of progressing impact evaluation techniques to support causal inferences of the impact of marine protected areas generally.

Governance in the early stages of marine protected area development: A case study of Nusa Penida District Marine Conservation Area, Indonesia

Yunitawati D, Clifton J. Governance in the early stages of marine protected area development: A case study of Nusa Penida District Marine Conservation Area, Indonesia. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2019 :103653. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X19305172
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

This research presents a governance analysis of an Indonesian marine protected area (MPA) during the early phases of its implementation – Nusa Penida District Marine Conservation Area. Attention is drawn to the importance of participatory and communication incentives in the design and implementation stages of the MPA, which were largely facilitated through the actions of overseas and domestic non-governmental organisations. Following the official designation of the MPA, management responsibility transferred to district government and state institutions, leading to a considerable reduction in the strength of incentives and uncertainty over leadership amongst local stakeholders. The implications of this situation are discussed and recommendations for future management are identified.

Relative mobility determines the efficacy of MPAs in a two species mixed fishery with conflicting management objectives

Watson FM, Hepburn LJ, Cameron T, Le Quesne WJF, Codling EA. Relative mobility determines the efficacy of MPAs in a two species mixed fishery with conflicting management objectives. Fisheries Research [Internet]. 2019 ;219:105334. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0165783619301894
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) have been used to protect species in need of conservation and as a fisheries management tool. It has been suggested MPAs can benefit mobile stocks by protecting spawning grounds whilst also allowing yields to be maintained as mature fish move out of the protected areas. However, the robustness of this claim in mixed species fisheries has yet to be established. We use a simulation model to explore the efficacy of spatial closures and effort regulation when other forms of fishery control (e.g., Total Allowable Catches) are absent or non-enforced as ways of addressing management objectives that are difficult to reconcile due to the contrasting life-histories of a target and a bycatch, conservation species in a two-species fishery. The mobility of each stock in such a fishery affects the benefits conferred by an MPA. The differing management objectives of the two species can be partially met by effort regulations or closures when the species exhibit similar mobility. However, a more mobile conservation species prevents both sets of aims being met by either management tool. We use simulations to explore how spatial closures and effort regulation can be used to seek compromise between stakeholders when the mobility of one stock prevents conflicting management objectives to be fully met. Our results demonstrate that stock mobility is a key factor in considering whether an MPA can meet conflicting aims in a multispecies fishery compromised of stocks with differing life histories and mobilities.

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